Description of (Corallina officinalis), (Himanthalia elongata) and (Patella ulyssiponensis) on very exposed lower eulittoral rock
Very exposed to exposed lower eulittoral bedrock shores in the south-west can support a dense turf of the red seaweed Corallina officinalis found underneath the long erect fronds of the wrack Himanthalia elongata. The rock surface is pitted with the limpet Patella ulyssiponensis. Also found on the bedrock is the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus or the limpet Patella vulgata, while numerous cracks and crevices provide shelter for anemones such as Actinia equina or the mussel Mytilus edulis. Other turf-forming red seaweeds include Lomentaria articulata, Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata, Gastroclonium ovatum, Ceramium spp. and Osmundea pinnatifida which can be found along with the kelp Laminaria digitata. Foliose green seaweeds such as Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca may also be present along with siphonous Codium spp. Sponges such as Grantia compressa, Halichondria panicea and Hymeniacidon perleve may be present in shaded areas. The brown seaweed Bifurcaria bifurcata and the barnacle Balanus perforatus may occur in the extreme south-west. Situation: This community usually forms a distinct band just above the kelp zone (A3.111, A3.1112 or A3.211). It can be found below the barnacle and P. vulgata dominated biotopes (A1.112; A1.113 or A1.1132). Temporal variation: There might be some fluctuations in the abundance of the individual species from year to year, which reverts this biotope into either A1.1221 or A1.123 .