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[Fucus spiralis] on full salinity sheltered upper eulittoral rock

Description of [Fucus spiralis] on full salinity sheltered upper eulittoral rock

Identity:

flag A1.3121
creatorIdentity remo
creationTime 2017-08-16T16:38:12.925
lastMaintainerIdentity remo
modificationTime 2016-03-16T18:42:49
id 2686
imageSize 0 Bytes

Sheltered upper eulittoral bedrock characterised by a band of the spiral wrack Fucus spiralis overlying the black lichen Verrucaria maura and the olive green lichen Verrucaria mucosa. Underneath the fronds of F. spiralis is a community consisting of the limpet Patella vulgata, the winkles Littorina saxatilis and Littorina littorea and sparse individuals of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides while the mussel Mytilus edulis can be found attached in cracks and crevices. A variety of red algae including Hildenbrandia rubra may be present underneath the fronds. During the summer months ephemeral green seaweeds such as Enteromorpha intestinalis can be common. Situation: This zone usually lies below a zone dominated by the wrack Pelvetia canaliculata (units A1.211; A1.311), but occasional clumps of P. canaliculata may be present (usually less than common) amongst the F. spiralis. In areas of extreme shelter, such as in Scottish sea lochs, the P. canaliculata and F. spiralis zones often merge together forming a very narrow band. A1.3121 occurs above the wracks Ascophyllum nodosum (A1.314) and/or Fucus vesiculosus (A1.313) zones and these two fucoids may also occur, although F. spiralis always dominates. Vertical surfaces in this zone, especially on moderately exposed shores, often lack the fucoids and are characterised by a barnacle-limpet dominated community (Sem).