[Laminaria hyperborea] on tide-swept infralittoral mixed substrata

Description of [Laminaria hyperborea] on tide-swept infralittoral mixed substrata


flag A3.213
creatorIdentity remo
creationTime 2017-08-16T16:38:13.407
Last Maintainer Identity remo
modificationTime 2016-03-16T18:42:49
id 3019
imageSize 0 Bytes

Wave-exposed through to wave-sheltered, tide-swept infralittoral mixed substrata with Laminaria hyperborea forest/park and other kelp species such as Laminaria saccharina. The rich under-storey and stipe flora is characterised by foliose seaweeds including the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma. The kelp stipes support epiphytes such as Cryptopleura ramosa, Callophyllis laciniata and Phycodrys rubens. At some sites, instead of being covered by red seaweeds, the kelp stipes are heavily encrusted by the ascidians Botryllus schlosseri and the bryozoan Alcyonidium diaphanum. Epilithic seaweeds such as Desmerestia aculeata, Odonthalia dentate, Delesseria sanguinea, Plocamium cartilagineum, Callophyllis laciniata, and crustose seaweeds commonly occur beneath the kelp. The kelp fronds are often covered with growths of the hydroid Obelia geniculata or the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. On the rock surface, a rich fauna comprising anthozoans such as Alcyonium digitatum and Urticina felina, colonial ascidians such as Clavelina lepadiformis and the calcareous tubeworm Pomatoceros triqueter occurs. More mobile species include the gastropods Gibulla cineria and Calliostoma zizyphinum, the crab Cancer pagurus and the echinoderms Crossaster papposus, Henricia oculata, Asterias rubens and Echinus esculentus. Two variants are described; tide-swept kelp forest on upper infralittoral mixed substrata (unit A3.2131) and tide-swept kelp park on lower infralittoral mixed substrata (unit A3.2132).