[Laminaria hyperborea] forest, foliose red seaweeds and a diverse fauna on tide-swept upper infralittoral rock

Description of [Laminaria hyperborea] forest, foliose red seaweeds and a diverse fauna on tide-swept upper infralittoral rock


flag A3.2121
creatorIdentity remo
creationTime 2017-08-16T16:38:13.417
Last Maintainer Identity remo
modificationTime 2016-03-16T18:42:49
id 3027
imageSize 0 Bytes

Exposed to moderately exposed, tide-swept bedrock and boulders, with dense Laminaria hyperborea forest, characterised by a rich under-storey and stipe flora of foliose seaweeds. The kelp stipes support epiphytes such as Callophyllis laciniata, Corallina officinalis, Cryptopleura ramosa, Membranoptera alata, and Phycodrys rubens. At some sites, instead of being covered by red seaweeds, the kelp stipes are heavily encrusted by the ascidians Botryllus schlosseri and in the south-west Distomus variolosus. Epilithic seaweeds (Dilsea carnosa, Hypoglossum hypoglossoides, Delesseria sanguinea, Plocamium cartilagineum, Brongniartella byssoides, and Dictyota dichotoma ) and crustose seaweeds commonly occur beneath the kelp. The kelp fronds are often covered with growth of the hydroid Obelia geniculata or the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. Although these species are also found in most kelp forests, in this biotope they are particularly dense. On the rock surface, a rich fauna comprising of the sponges Pachymatisma johnstonia, Halichondria panicea, Esperiopsis fucorum and Dysidea fragilis, anthozoans such as Urticina felina, Alcyonium digitatum and Caryophilia smithii, the barnacle Balanus crenatus, colonial ascidians such as Clavelina lepadiformis, and the gastropods Calliostoma zizyphinum and Gibbula cineraria, occur. Also found on the rock is the echinoderm Asterias rubens and the crab Cancer pagurus. Situation: This biotope occurs below Alaria esculenta (unit A3.111) at exposed sites or L. digitata (unit A3.2111) at moderately exposed locations. With increasing depth the kelp density diminishes to become tide-swept kelp park (unit A3.2122)