Description of [Laminaria hyperborea] park and foliose red seaweeds on tide-swept lower infralittoral mixed substrata
Exposed to moderately wave-exposed, tide-swept, Infralittoral mixed substrata with Laminaria hyperborea park characterised by an under-storey and stipe flora of foliose seaweeds such as Phycodrys rubens, Plocamium cartilagineum, Hypoglossum hypoglossoides, Kallymenia reniformis, Cryptopleura ramosa and Delesseria sanguinea. Epilithic seaweeds (Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, Callophyllis laciniata, Lomentaria orcadensis and Brongniartella byssoides) and crustose seaweeds commonly occur beneath the kelp. The foliose brown seaweed Dictyota dichotoma is often present as well. Amongst the red seaweeds is a fairly diverse fauna comprising sponges (Scypha ciliate), anthozoans (Alcyonium digitatum, Urticina felina and Caryophyllia smithii), hydroids (Tubularia indivisa, Halecium halecinum, Sertularia argentea and Nemertesia antennina), colonial ascidians (Botryllus schlosseri) and bryozoans such as Alcyonium diaphanum. On the rock surface, the calcareous tubeworm Pomatoceros triqueter, the crab Cancer pagurus and the gastropods Gibbula cineraria and Calliostoma zizyphinum may be found. A diverse range of echinoderms are also found in this biotope: Crossaster papposus, Henricia oculata, Asterias rubens, Echinus esculentus and Ophiothrix fragilis.