Bryozoan turf and erect sponges on tide-swept circalittoral rock

Description of Bryozoan turf and erect sponges on tide-swept circalittoral rock


flag A4.131
creatorIdentity remo
creationTime 2017-08-16T16:38:13.569
Last Maintainer Identity remo
modificationTime 2016-03-16T18:42:49
id 3140
imageSize 0 Bytes

This biotope is typically found on wave-exposed circalittoral bedrock or boulders subject to tidal streams ranging from moderately strong to strong. It often has a thin layer of silt covering the seabed, and is characterised by a bryozoan/hydroid turf with erect sponges. Typical bryozoans to be found include crisiids, Alcyonidium diaphanum, Flustra foliacea, Pentapora foliacea, Bugula plumosa and Bugula flabellata, while typical hydroids include Nemertesia antennina, Nemertesia ramosa and Halecium halecinum. The soft coral Alcyonium digitatum is frequently recorded on the tops of boulders and rocky outcrops. Characteristic erect sponges include Raspailia ramosa, Stelligera stuposa and Stelligera rigida; other sponges present include Cliona celata, Dysidea fragilis, Pachymatisma johnstonia, Polymastia boletiformis, Hemimycale columella, Esperiopsis fucorum, Polymastia mamillaris and Tethya aurantium. Other species present include Caryophylia smithii, Actinothoe sphyrodeta, Corynactis viridis, Urticina felina, Balanus crenatus, Asterias rubens, Marthasterias glacialis, Henricia oculata, Echinus esculentus, Clavelina lepadiformis, Calliostoma zizyphinum and Necora puber. Three variants of this biotope have been described, but all are characterised by a bryozoan turf with erect sponges. A4.1311 is found primarily on circalittoral bedrock and is dominated by the seafan Eunicella verrucosa. Unit A4.1312 is found under slightly stronger tide-swept conditions, and is characterised particularly by the sponge D. fragilis and the anemone A. sphyrodeta. Finally unit A4.1313 is characterised by the anemone Sagartia elegans.