Forests of Pinus sylvestris ssp. sylvestris and Pinus sylvestris ssp. hamata of the Nemoral and Mediterranean zones and of their transitions to the Steppe zone. Included are, in particular, the forests of Scotland, of the Alpine system, of the Mediterranean peninsulas, of the lowlands of Central Europe, of the East European Nemoral zone and its adjacent wooded steppes, formed by Pinus sylvestris ssp. sylvestris, as well as those of Anatolia, of the Caucacus and of Crimea, formed by Pinus sylvestris ssp. hamata. Excluded are the formations situated within the range of natural lowland occurrence of Picea abies.